贰柒拾游戏

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                  1. 分割线
                    “习惯重于方法”——胡适的治学之道
                    来源: 2020/05/20 09:06:46 作者:魏建国
                    字号:AA+

                    导读: 胡适明确提出要“扩大研究的材料的范围,寻求书本以外的新材料”,这是做学问非常重要的技巧。

                    HUSHI(1891—1962),ZISHIZHI,SIXIANGJIA、WENXUEJIA、ZHEXUEJIA,YICHANGDAO“BAIHUAWEN”、LINGDAOXINWENHUAYUNDONGWENMINGYUSHI。HUSHIDEXUESHUHUODONGZHUYAOZAIWENXUE、ZHEXUE、SHIXUE、KAOJUXUE、JIAOYUXUEDENGFANGMIAN。TASUOCHANGDAODE“XIGUANZHONGYUFANGFA”DEDUSHUZHIXUETAIDU,TADALITUICHONGDE“KEXUEJINGSHENYUKEXUEFANGFA”,DUIYUJINRENQIUZHIWENXUERENGRANJUYOUZHONGYAODEJIEJIANYIYI。

                    贰柒拾游戏“QIN、JIN、HE、HUAN”DEZHIXUEXIGUAN

                    DUSHUZHIXUEDEJIQIAOYUFANGFAGURANSHIFENZHONGYAO,DANSHIZHENGSUOWEISHUSHANYOULUQINWEIJING,HUSHIRENWEIZUOXUEWENJIUJINGSHI“MEIYOUSHENMEJIANBIANSHENGLIDEFANGFAKEYANDE”。TAZAI《ZHIXUEFANGFA》ZHONGTICHU,ZUOXUEWENDEFANGFASUIRANFEICHANGDUO,DANSHIYOUYIGEJIBENDEGONGFA,ZHEIBIANSHIYOU“FANGFADEXIGUAN”,“KEXUEFANGFABINGWUQIAOMIAO,ZHIBUGUOSHIYIYANGCHENGZHIXUEDELIANGHAOXIGUANDERENDEFANGFAERYI”。HUSHIYERENWEIYINGGAIXUEXIGUITUSAIPAOZHONGWUGUIPINMINGNULIDEJINGSHEN,TARENWEI“TUZIXUEBUDE,WUGUIKEXUEYE”,XIGUANBITIANCAIGENGZHONGYAO,“TIANCAIBUGOUDEREN,RUGUOYONGGONG,YOUFANGFADEXUNLIAN”,YIYANGKEYIZAIXUEWENSHANGQUDECHENGJIU。

                    HUSHIQIANGDIAODUSHUZHIXUEXUYANGCHENG“QIN、JIN、HE、HUAN”DELIANGHAOXIGUAN。DIYIDIAN“QIN”,YEJIUSHI“BUDUOLAN、BUYAOLAN”,LIANGHAODEZHIXUEXIGUANYAODUO“YONGYAN、SHOU、JIAOBAWENTINONGQINGCHU”。DIERDIAN“JIN”,YEJIUSHI“BUGOUQIE、BULIAOCAO、BUCHAILANWU”,ZUOXUEWENBIXUYAOXINIXIXIN,RUTONGYONGXIANWEIJINGYIBANBUFANGGUOXUEWENZHONGDERENHEYIGEXIAODIAN,WEIYOUCICAI“SHENGQULEWUSHUDEBUBIYAODESUNSHI”,CAINENGQIUDEZHENZHIZHUOJIANDEXUEWEN。DISANDIAN“HE”,JIUSHI“XUXIN,BUWUDUAN,BUGUZHIJIJIAN,BUDONGHUOQI”,DANQUEYOU“BUYAOQINGYUXIANGXINDAJIA”,YOU“DAPOSHAGUOWENDAODI”DEZHUIWENJINGSHEN,YOU“WUQIONGWUJINDEQIUZHIYU”,GANYUCONGSHIJIWENTIYUYIYOUJINGYANRENZHIZHONGQIONGJIUXINXUEWEN。DISIDIAN“HUAN”,BUJINSHIZHENGJUBUZUSHIDEXUANERBUDUAN,GENGSHI“DONGSHOU”QUZHAOXUNXINCAILIAOYIQIUZUOZHENG,HUSHIRENWEI“SHUBENZIDELU”DADOUXINGBUTONG,ZUOXUEWENBIXUYAOSHANYUGUANCHAFENXISHIJISHENGHUO,“KANDAKANDAOWUQIONG,KANXIAOYEKANDAOWUQIONG,NENGHEYUZHOUZHONGDESHIWUHUNZUOYIPIAN”,ZHEICAISHIZUOXUEWENDEZHENFANGFA。

                    贰柒拾游戏“DADANDEJIASHE、XIAOXINDEQIUZHENG”DEZHIXUEFANGFA

                    HUSHIRENWEIWULUNSHENMEKEXUEDOUYOUYIGEZHIXUEFANGFA,JIUSHIZUOYANJIUDEFANGFA。SUOWEIZUOYANJIUJIUSHIQUJIEJUEYIJINGFASHENGQIEYOUBIYAOJIEJUEDE“KUNNANWENTI”,GUJINZHONGWAIZUOXUEWENDANFANYOUSUOJIANSHUYUCHENGJIUZHE,DONGJIHEMUDEDOUSHIXIANGTONGDE,JIYANJIUDE“DONGJISHIKUNNAN,ERMUDESHIJIEJUEKUNNAN”。ZUOYANJIUDEFANGFA,JIANDANDISHUO,JIUSHICONGFAXIANKUNNANDAOJIEJUEKUNNAN,CONGYANJIUDONGJIDAOYANJIUMUDEZHIJIANDEYIGEGUOCHENG。DANGRAN,ZHEIGEGUOCHENGHUIYIN“KUNNANWENTI”DEBUTONG,SHIJIANSHANGHUIYOUZHANGDUANZHIBIE。

                    “DADANDEJIASHE、XIAOXINDEQIUZHENG”SHIHUSHIDUIZHIXUEFANGFAJIANMINGEYAODEGAIKUO。HUSHIHUIGUZIJIERSANSHINIANDEZHIXUEZHILU,BAZIJIDEZHIXUEFANGFAGAIKUOWEI“DADANDEJIASHE、XIAOXINDEQIUZHENG”。HUSHISHUO:“YAODADANDETICHUJIASHE,DANZHEIZHONGJIASHEHAIDEXIANGFAZIZHENGMING。SUOYIXIAOXINDEQIUZHENG,YAOXIANGFAZIZHENGSHIJIASHEHUOZHEFOUDINGJIASHE。”HUSHIBUJINYINZHEI“SHIZIZHIXUEZHENYAN”SHOUYIFEIQIAN,YECHANGCHANGXIANGQINGNIANMENJIANGSHU,ZONGXIWANGZIJIDEXUESHENGMENNENGGOULEJIEBINGJIANXING。

                    贰柒拾游戏HUSHIXIANGXICHANMINGLE“DADANDEJIASHE”JIQIZHENGMINGYUFOUDING。TARENWEI,WULUNSHIZIRANKEXUEHAISHIRENWENSHEHUIKEXUE“KUNNAN”YUWENTICHUXIANDESHIHOU,YANJIUZHEHUOXUEWENJIAZONGHUIBUZIJUEDIJINXINGJIASHE,BINGQIETICHURUOGANDEJIEJUEFANGAN。DANGRANZHISHI、JINGYAN、XUEWENBUTONGDEXUEWENJIA,TICHUDEJIASHEYUZHENGMINGDEJIEGUOYEHUIYOUCHAYI。DANSHI,WULUNSHI“DADAN”HAISHI“XIAODAN”DEJIASHE,JIBENDEMUDEJIUSHINENGFOUDEDAOZHENGMING。YOUCI,ZUOXUEWENTICHUJIASHEZHIHOU,ZUIYAOJINDEJIUSHIZHAOXUNCAILIAOYUZHENGJU,ERYAOXUNZHAOZHENGJUYUCAILIAOZEXUYOU“SHANGQIONGBILUOXIAHUANGQUAN,DONGSHOUDONGJIAOZHAODONGXI”DEJINGSHEN。

                    “ZIWOJIANTAO、ZIWOPIPING、ZIWOXIUZHENG”DEZHIXUEZIJUE

                    贰柒拾游戏ZHIXUEZONGYAOYOUYIDIANGANYUZIWOPIPANDEJINGSHEN,FANGNENGQIUDEZHENZHIZHUOJIAN。HUSHIRENWEI,MEIYOUFANGFADEZIJUE,“DANSHUOFANGFASHIBUGOUDE”,WENSHI、SHEHUIKEXUEQUBIEYUZIRANYINGYONGKEXUEDEDIFANGZAIYUQIBUNENGSUISHIYISHIYANJIEGUOJIUPIANJIUCUO。YINCI,TATICHUKEXUEYANJIUWUBIYAOYOUZHIXUEDEZIJUE,JI“ZIJIPIPINGZIJI,ZIJIJIANTAOZIJI,FAXIANZIJIDECUOWU,JIUZHENGZIJIDECUOWU”,SUZAOYIZHONG“BUXIANGXINYIQIEMEIYOUCHONGFENZHENGJUDEDONGXI”DEKEXUEJINGSHENYUTAIDU。HUSHIYI1948NIANMEIGUODAXUANDEMINYICEYANWEISHILIZHICHU,KEXUEDEFANGFABUYIDINGNENGDECHUKEXUEDEJIELUN,DANCUOWUDEJIELUNYEBINGBUYIWEIZHEFANGFACUOWU,ERZHISHIYONGFANGFADERENYONGCUOLEFANGFA,QUEFAZIJUEDEPIPINGYUZIJUEDEJIANTAO。

                    HUSHIHAITICHULEZUODAOZHIXUEZIJUEDEFANGFA。TATICHU:“WOMENYAOSHIDEFANGFAZIJUE,JIUYINGGAIYUNYONGZHENGJUFASHANGYUNXULIANGZAOBOCHIDUIFANGSUOTIZHENGJUDEFANGFA,LAIZUOWEIWOMENYANGCHENGFANGFAZIJUEDEYIZHONGXUNLIAN。”YAOXINGCHENGZHEIZHONGFANGFADEZIJUE,JIUYAOSHANYUKAOJU,BUJINYAOSHENCHAZHENGJUDEKEKAOXING,YEYAOSHENCHAZHENGJUYUQIUZHENGDEGUANLIANXING,GENGYAOSHIKEJIANTAOZIJI。

                    “KUODAYANJIUDECAILIAODEFANWEI”DEZHIXUEJIQIAO

                    贰柒拾游戏CAILIAOZHIYUZHIXUESHIJIWEIZHONGYAODE。HUSHIFEICHANGTUICHONGYINGGUOZHEXUEJIAPEIGENGUANYUZUOXUEWENDERENYUNYONGCAILIAODEDONGWUPIYU,JI“ZHIZHUSHIZUOXUEWENDEREN”,NENGGOUBANEIZAIDECAILIAOWAIHUABINGZHICHENGHENDUOHENHAOKANDEWANG;“MAYISHIZUOXUEWENDEREN”,ZHIZHIDAOBANYUNCAILIAOERBUDONGDEYANJIULIYONG;“MIFENGSHIDEXUEWENJIA”,JIQUBAIHUAJINGHUAJIAGONGHOUNIANGCHENGMITANG,KANCHENG“ZUOXUEWENRENDEZUIHAODIANFAN”。CAILIAOZHIJIEBANGZHUHUOZHEXIANZHIZUOXUEWENDEFANGFA,CAILIAODEBUTONGYOUJUEDINGLEXUEWENDEGAODUYUSHENDU。YINCI,HUSHIMINGQUETICHUYAO“KUODAYANJIUDECAILIAODEFANWEI,XUNQIUSHUBENYIWAIDEXINCAILIAO”,ZHEISHIZUOXUEWENFEICHANGZHONGYAODEJIQIAO。

                    SHANYONGCAILIAOSHIZUOXUEWENQUDEHAOCHENGJIDEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN。HUSHIRENWEI,WULUNGERENYANJIU,HAISHITUANTIYANJIU,ZUOYANJIUQUDEHAOCHENGJIDETONGYONGJINGYANSHI,YAOYOU“ZHIJIEDEYANJIUCAILIAO”“NENGGOUSUISHISUIDIKUOZHANGCAILIAO”“KUOZHANGYANJIUSHISUOYONGDEGONGJU”DENG3GETIAOJIAN。YINCI,TATICHUZUOHAOXUEWEN,BIXUYAOSHANYUFAXIANXINCAILIAO,SHANYUYUNYONGZHIXUEFANGFAHUOQUXINCAILIAO,YEYAO“ZIJIYINGDANGZIJUEDEPIPINGZIJIDECAILIAO”。RUCI,CAINENGZHAODAOYANJIUDEXINZHENGJU,CAIKEYISHIYANJIUYOUXINDEJINBU、XINDEFAXIAN。

                    原标题:“习惯重于方法”——胡适的治学之道

                    责编:陈倩柔 (  转载请注明海疆在线)
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